Pancreatic neoplasms or pancreatic tumors are tumors arising in the pancreas of the digestive system. There are various kinds of pancreatic tumors, which can be either malignant or benign. Pancreatic tumors arise; when cells in the pancreas start multiplying uncontrollably and form a mass. These cancerous cells can invade the other body parts as well.
Among various other types of pancreatic cancers, a solid pseudopapillary tumor is also one. A solid pseudopapillary neoplasm or solid pseudopapillary tumor is a low-grade malignant pancreas neoplasm. It is present with papillary architecture. It is a rare epithelial tumor of low malignant potential that usually affects young women. The solid pseudopapillary tumor is relatively benign, showing a favorable prognosis. This tumor accounts for approximately less than 1 to 2% of the exocrine pancreatic tumors. The risk factors associated with the solid pseudopapillary tumor or other pancreatic tumors include heavy alcohol intake, obesity, diabetes, and tobacco smoking.
Solid Pseudopapillary Tumor Symptoms
The signs and symptoms of pancreatic cancer usually do not show up till the advancement of the disease. From a general point of view, the symptoms may include loss of appetite or weight loss. The other symptoms include abdominal pain radiating to the back, dark-colored urine, itchy skin, jaundice, and light-colored stools.
The solid pseudopapillary tumor may be asymptomatic during a routine checkup. Most affected individuals may experience abdominal pain, palpable non-tender upper abdominal mass, and abdominal discomfort. They also have other signs and symptoms like vomiting, poor appetite, weight loss, nausea, jaundice, and weight loss. The solid pseudopapillary tumor is identified incidentally on imaging; the imaging is performed; for unrelated reasons. The solid pseudopapillary tumors are more common in women and are the majority of the time present in the third decade of life. The survival following primary resection in solid pseudopapillary tumors usually approaches 95% at five years.
Solid Pseudopapillary Tumor Causes
It is not clear what causes pancreatic cancer. However, the doctors have identified a few factors associated with this tumor. The causes may include inherited gene mutations and smoking.
The other factors may include diabetes, pancreatitis, obesity, family history of pancreatic cancer, BRCA2 gene mutation, Lynch syndrome, and familial atypical mole-malignant melanoma (FAMMM) syndrome. The majority of the people are diagnosed; after age 65. A group study has revealed that the combination of long-standing diabetes, smoking, and a poor diet increases the risk of pancreatic cancer beyond the risk relating to any one of these factors alone. The causes may vary from person to person.
Solid Pseudopapillary Tumor Prognosis
A solid pseudopapillary tumor or STP is a tumor of the pancreas. The prognosis of a solid pseudopapillary tumor is generally good, with cases having a chance for long-term survival even with the recurrence that may include metastasis. The lack of a predictive staging classification describing the heterogeneity of this disease sometimes hinders meaningful research into an optimal individualized therapy.
A solid pseudopapillary tumor of the pancreas is quite rare in children. It is visible on the radiologic examination for various other reasons and, no signs and symptoms are usually there. However, in some patients, tumor noticeability is possible due to acute or chronic abdominal pain. The solid pseudopapillary tumor is localized in the pancreatic head. The endocrine or exocrine insufficiencies have not been elaborated yet.
Solid Pseudopapillary Tumor Treatment
In most patients, surgical resection is curative resulting in a five-year disease-specific survival rate of 98.5%. However, in advanced or metastatic disease long-term survival can also be achieved. A good prognosis of SPTP plays a vital role in the low malignant biological behavior. For this reason, an aggressive surgical intervention therapy is adopted; for patients with developed SPTP with metastasis.
Other methods of treatment involve adjuvant therapy such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy. In chemotherapeutic treatment, gemcitabine and 5-fluorouracil are used. The sporadic reports have shown that neoadjuvant chemotherapy or radiation therapy can benefit individuals with unresectable tumors.
The other therapeutic methods may include transcatheter arterial chemoembolization and radiofrequency ablation. Liver transplantation and selective internal radiotherapy (SIRT) are too reported; to exhibit good results for patients with liver metastasis from SPTP. However, rather than a better understanding of this tumor, the individual treatment of metastatic unresectable SPTP requires detailed study.