An atypical lipomatous tumor refers to a rare tumor. It is also known as well-differentiated liposarcoma (WDL). Both of these conditions can develop in the soft tissues of the body. An atypical lipomatous tumor is considered a low-grade malignant tumor that rarely metastasizes. It should be carefully followed; due to the probability of its recurrence or dedifferentiation.
The atypical lipomatous tumor may occur at any part of the body. However, these are more common in the arm and thigh. These are benign tumors but can recur. These lesions are identical both from a karyotypically and morphological point of view. The site-specific variations of this benign tumor in behavior are associated with surgical resectability. Preoperative differential diagnosis between ALT and a well-differentiated liposarcoma has been studied thoroughly. The preoperative differential diagnosis is essential as image and clinical characteristics are closely related.
Atypical Lipomatous Tumor Symptoms
Lipomas can develop anywhere in the human body. Their common sites of occurrence involve the neck, shoulders,
Lipomas can occur anywhere in the body. They are present in the abdomen, arms, thighs, shoulders, back, and neck. These are usually doughy and soft to the touch and can displace easily with even the slightest finger pressure.
An atypical lipomatous tumor involves a painless and slow-growing mass. This mass is present in the limbs or retroperitoneum most of the time. Due to this fleshy or firm mass, the affected individuals may observe bowel or urinary obstruction if it extends in size. An atypical tumor may be non-metastatic and locally aggressive. It is the most common soft tissue sarcoma and is rare in children. Both males and females are equally prone to this tumor. The sites of the tumor-affected areas are trunk (12%), retroperitoneum (20%–33%), lower extremities (50%), upper extremity (14%), and thigh, the most common site.
Atypical Lipomatous Tumor Causes
Healthcare providers are not sure about the causes of growing lipomas. The common causes of an atypical lipomatous tumor include inheritance. People are more likely to develop a lipoma if any family member is affected with this lipoma. Few conditions are usually associated with the growth of an atypical lipomatous tumor or lipomas.
Decrum’s disease is a rare disorder in which painful lipomas grow on the body. These lipomas grow on the trunk, legs, and arms. The condition is also referred; to as Anders’ syndrome or adiposis dolorosa. Another condition associated with the atypical lipomatous tumor is Gardner syndrome. It also causes the growth and development of lipomas and a wide range of health problems.
Hereditary multiple lipomatosis or familial multiple lipomatosis is also inherited. Atypical tumors or multiple symmetric lipomatosis may also be due to Madelung’s disease, common in men with excessive alcohol drinking habits. As a result of Madelung’s disease, lipomas grow around the shoulders and neck.
Atypical Lipomatous Tumor Prognosis
The prognosis of atypical lipomatous tumors or benign lipomas is good. The lipomas are considered benign entities and usually do not carry any chance of malignant transformation. The excision of tumors for cosmetic reasons helps in eradicating the condition as they often do not return. However, there must be a complete elimination of the fibrous capsule surrounding the lipoma.
Prognosis is fair enough for an atypical tumor. However, tumor rupture and sclerosing subtype are unfavorable prognostic factors for the local recurrence of this benign type of tumor. Marginal resection (MR) was associated with a decreased risk of tumor rupture compared to simple tumor resection (SR). Major muscle and neurovascular resections are not essential for principle. Re-excision is usually not necessary after the unplanned surgery. However, a preoperative core needle biopsy could serve the purpose of identification of the sclerosing subtype. To conclude, the overall prognosis for atypical tumors is good.
Atypical Lipomatous Tumor Treatment
The treatment of lipomas is usually not necessary unless they turn out painful or hinder movement. The treatment is based; upon the size, grade, and position of the tumor. It is dependent on your general health and well-being. Also, it is essential whether it has spread to the other parts of the body or not.
Atypical lipomatous tumors are eradicated; by simple excision under local anesthesia within 30 minutes. It cures the majority of cases. Another treatment method is liposuction if the lipoma comprises a connective tissue component. Liposuction results in less scarring however with large lipomas, it may fail to remove the entire tumor leading to regrowth. The new methods involve the removal of lipomas without scarring. One out of those methods is the removal of tumors by injecting compounds triggering lipolyses such as phosphatidylcholine or steroids. Other potential methods are based; on tissue-targeted heating including harmonic scalpel, electrosurgery, and cauterization.