Ascites in women are most commonly caused by ovarian cancer, whereas breast carcinoma is the most prevalent metastatic malignancy seen in pleural effusion specimens. Breast cancer cytomorphology in effusions varies greatly and shows overlap with both reactive mesothelial cells and metastases from various original tumor sites. When breast cancer cells spread throughout the body, a common complication is metastasis.
In effusion cytology, immunohistochemistry (IHC) plays a significant role in the identification of metastatic malignancy. This is especially true when it comes to differentiating metastatic carcinoma from malignant and benign mesothelial cells. However, accurate determination of whether or not the breast is the primary location of the tumor is a more challenging task. Although many breast cancer markers are employed, to the best of our knowledge, neither of them is sensitive or specific.
GATA3 is involved in the progression of breast cancer and plays an important role in luminal cell differentiation. The immunohistochemistry for GATA3 is a helpful diagnostic of breast cancer, although its role in distinguishing between subtypes is not well understood. The morphology and development of mammary glands are influenced by GATA3, a member of the GATA family of zinc finger transcription factors. It is frequently regarded as a transcription factor preserving luminal cell differentiation in breast ducts. It is among the six genes (TP53, PIK3CA, AKT1, GATA3, CBFB, and MAP3K1) that frequently undergo alterations in breast cancer.
Gata3 breast cancer Staining
GATA3 is a helpful marker for characterizing mesotheliomas, paragangliomas, and renal and germ cell cancers, in addition to mammary and urothelial cells. When employing GATA3 as a marker for the detection of urothelial or metastatic mammary carcinomas, it is important to keep in mind the marker’s various specificities.
The transcription factor GATA3 participates with the estrogen receptor (ER) and FOXA1 in a sophisticated transcriptional regulation mechanism that promotes the formation of breast tumors and is a good prognostic indicator in ER-positive breast tumors. Breast cancers frequently carry GATA3 mutations, which are now recognized as “driver mutations.” To evaluate the genesis of metastatic lesions, immunohistochemical staining with other markers is required due to the growing number of cancers that express GATA3.