Hypercementosis is a disorder characterized mostly by tooth-related issues. Cementum, the tissue that surrounds the tooth’s root or bottom, builds up in this disease. The cementum that forms around the tooth’s gum makes the tooth appear larger than usual. This happens to one or more teeth. Hypercementosis is mostly caused by several things, such as damage to the teeth, teeth that are stuck together, arthritis, and other bone diseases.
The calcified covering on a tooth root is called cementum. Its deposition is a process that goes on all the time and happens at different rates. Cementum development happens more rapidly in the apical areas, where it compensates for attrition through tooth eruption.
Hypercementosis often makes teeth look chipped because it causes cementum to develop abnormally and creates irregular deposits at the tooth’s tip. The deposits appear as thin white lines across the chewing surfaces of the teeth and are unattractive. If left untreated, this ailment also results in more significant medical problems.
The prevalence of hypercementosis rises with age and is predominately a condition of maturity, which is primarily due to prolonged exposure to factors that cause it. There are reports of its recurrence in younger patients, and a significant number of these cases exhibit familial clustering, suggesting a genetic component.
A radiographic examination is used to diagnose this asymptomatic disease. The tooth root becomes slightly or severely damaged, appearing bulbous or lobular. Small, white ridges on the crowns of the teeth and dental aches or discomfort are the main signs of hypercementosis. More symptoms often appear if the illness worsens and is not treated. Worsened symptoms include tooth fusion, loss of vision, and reduced blood supply to the eye. Fortunately, hypercementosis is typically curable, and the onset of these acute symptoms is preventable.
Hypercementosis is always associated with several different inflammatory processes, including those caused by pulpal or periodontal illness, occlusal stress, tooth transplantation, tooth mobility, and root fracture healing. Some systemic conditions are linked to it, including:
- A lack of vitamin A.
- Paget’s illness.
- Gardner’s Syndrome.
- The fever is caused by Rheumatic disease.
This disorder possesses a weak association with most other diseases except Paget’s syndrome, which is significantly linked to it. Other systemic causes of hypercementosis are being ruled out in patients with a certain medical background and clinical findings. Hypercementosis of the tooth root is frequently observed in endodontic treatment.
In most cases, hypercementosis does not require any kind of medical intervention. However, to avoid difficulties caused by this condition, any kind of interventional dental therapy, such as the removal of teeth, endodontic therapy, or orthodontic therapy, does call for a significant amount of preemptive care. The local and systemic elements serve as a reference for predicting the existence of hypercementosis and aiding in the planning and implementation of a dental therapy to ensure therapeutic success.
Patients that suffer from hypercementosis do not require any treatment. Thickened roots often cause extraction complications. In some circumstances, the tooth is required to be cut into sections to facilitate removal.
Hypercementosis vs Cementoblastoma
The non-neoplastic disorder known as hypercementosis is characterized by the deposition of an abnormally high amount of cementum in conjunction with the typical radicular cementum. Hypercementosis is an idiopathic disorder, although it is also linked to other factors both locally and systemically. A cementum-like mass of tissue known as a cementoblastoma develops on the tooth root as a result of the growth of functional cementoblasts, an odontogenic tumor.
Radiographically, Cementoblastoma and Hypercementosis are two diseases that are often confused with each other. However, they are mostly differentiated from each other by the increased severity of the latter, which needs different means of treatment. In the present instance, the likely presence of Cementoblastoma is ruled out based on the features presented by imaging and clinical exams. These characteristics include disruption of the expansion of cortical bone, lamina dura, root resorption, and pain.
Atypical instances make the diagnosis of Hypercementosis and Cementoblastoma more difficult, although both illnesses are typical and exhibit distinct clinical development. While conservative treatment is advised for hypercementosis, total surgical resection is the standard of care for cementoblastoma because it is a tumor with an unrestricted capacity for growth.