The most common kind of ovarian epithelial tumor is called an ovarian serous tumor, and the malignant form of this tumor is called ovarian serous cystadenocarcinoma. It is the type of ovarian cancer that occurs the most frequently. Although the terms low-grade and high-grade serous carcinoma are often used interchangeably, the two tumor types are increasingly being seen as distinct.
Serous tumors are the most prevalent surface epithelial-stromal tumors, which make up 30% of all ovarian neoplasms. Between half and two-thirds of serous tumors are completely benign. Serous cystadenomas are the most common benign ovarian neoplasm, making up about 25% of all ovarian neoplasms, and serous cystadenocarcinomas are the most common malignant ovarian neoplasm, making up about 50% of all ovarian neoplasms.
Serious cystadenomas are more common in postmenopausal and perimenopausal women, while serous cystadenocarcinomas are more common in women in their forties and fifties. Roughly twenty percent of serous tumors are benign and fifty percent of malignant serous tumors are bilateral. Although mucinous tumors tend to be larger than cysts, cystic tumors are typically much smaller.
Ovarian Cystadenocarcinoma Symptoms
It is possible that early-stage ovarian cancer does not manifest any obvious symptoms. Ovarian cancer symptoms are often misdiagnosed as being caused by something less serious.
The following symptoms are mostly experienced:
- Swelling or bloating of the abdomen.
- Rapid feelings of fullness after eating.
- Weight loss.
- Pelvic pain or discomfort.
- Extreme fatigue.
- Urinary frequency.
Ovarian Cystadenocarcinoma Causes
Cystadenocarcinoma does not possess renowned risk elements, and it is not known where it comes from, but it is usually thought to be the cancerous version of cystadenoma. The propagating epithelial cells do resemble those found in cystadenomas; both exhibit a biliary-type phenotype, and in the majority of patients, mild columnar and cancerous papillary epithelium exists side by side in typical cystadenoma areas.
Some of the recognized risk factors are as follows:
- Early puberty.
- Late menopause.
- A positive family history.
As cystadenoma is a rare tumor, and data on its potential for malignant transformation into cystadenocarcinoma is relatively scarce, it is difficult to predict whether or not this tumor will progress to this more aggressive form.
Ovarian Cystadenocarcinoma Prognosis
The majority of women with ovarian tumors in stage 1 possess a good prognosis. Over 90% of patients who are diagnosed at stage 1 with a grade 1 tumor survive for at least 5 years. This includes those who are diagnosed at stages 1A and 1B. Large-scale studies are frequently used to calculate survival rates, but these rates have no predictive value for a single person’s health. In addition to the stage of cancer and how well it responds to treatment, a woman’s overall health and the quality of her life are also significant in determining her prognosis.
The females who are under the age of 65 possess a favorable prognosis than the older females. A pathologist assigns a grade to cancer based on microscopic examination of tissue and fluid. Grades 1–3 represent the most advanced stages of the disease. Grade 1 cells are the most similar to ovarian tissue and are less prone to metastasis, whereas Grade 3 cells are much more unpredictable. Most Stage I cancers are not treated with chemotherapy.
Ovarian Cystadenocarcinoma Treatment
The following factors affect how an ovarian cystadenocarcinoma patient is managed:
- Signs and Symptoms
- Cyst size
- Medical record
- The phase of menopause
The appropriate treatment for ovarian cystadenomas is either a salpingo-oophorectomy (one side only) or an ovarian cystectomy (both sides). An inadequate surgery or the development of a secondary tumor is the most common cause of clinical recurrence.