Salivary glands are rich in lymphocytes along germinal centers generally called as lymph node-like stroma which make them one of the important organs of the human body. A benign type of tumor in the salivary glands is called as papillary cystadenoma lymphomatosum or generally we know it as Warthin’s Tumor. It is defined as “an adenoma composed of two layers of columnar and basaloid oncocytic epithelium that forms multiple cysts with numerous papillae, accompanied by a proliferation of follicle-containing lymphoid tissue”. The first two cases of warthin’s tumor were reported in 1929 by a pathologist Aldred Scott Warthin and so the disease was named after his name.
Warthin’s tumor accounts for almost 4-25% of all kinds of tumors occurring in salivary glands as well as it is known as the second most common type among parotid gland tumors. It is assumed that all of the warthin’s tumors are connected with the parotid glands. Only 10% occur in the deep lobe region of the parotid glands while mostly are observed in the tail part. There are very few number of warthin’s tumors which have been reported in different sites other than the parotid gland. It has been observed that the ratio of occurrence is very low in black population. As well as it mostly occurs among older individuals between the 60-70 years of age and according to recent studies it is considered to have a slightpredilection towards male population. It is considered to be highly unlikely that warthin’s tumor grow malignant. In most of the patients it occurs bilateral and accounts for 5-7.5% while multi-centric tumors (at more than one sites in one patient at different times) accounts for 12-20%.
Warthin’s Tumor Infection Infection
The specified site for the warthin’s tumor is parotid gland which is assumed as a rare site for the development of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis even in the population of those countries where the disease is widespread. But the studies have proved thedevelopment of tuberculosis infection among the diseased patients. These cases showed positive acid-fast stains and granulomatous stroma and afterwards these were treated with the anti-tuberculosis medications in addition to the established treatment of the disease (warthin’s tumor).
Warthin’s Tumor Pain
At the initial stage of the disease usually no pain has been observed by the patients and the only symptom is a painless, slowly growing bump at the position of parotid glands at the neck below the jaw. These tumors may grow in size with time but it is rare to become malignant. If the disease is not diagnosed and the bump is left untreated then the swelling in the defined area may gradually increases leading to a worse associated condition called as facial nerve palsy. This condition is specifically associated with the warthin’s tumor which may cause swelling of neural nodes leading to the resistance in movement of facial muscles on the affected side.
Warthin’s Tumor Causes
Warthin’s tumor is common and well known among population but the exact underlying cause is still unknown. However a few causes has been stated by the professionals which show some potential for the occurrence of the disease in one way or other. These may include;
- Smoking; is believed to be a potential cause for the development of the disease and the smokers are considered to be at 8 time’s higher risk than the general population.
- Radiation exposure is considered to be associated with the disease.
- Autoimmune disorders may also show some baselines for the occurrence of warthin’s tumor.
But these above stated factors also show a lot of ambiguities to be the one basic and genuine cause for the disease and the professionals may avoid to give the proper reason due to the lack of scientific data in this regard.
Warthin’s Tumor Surgery
The detection of the tumor at the right time is very important for the adoption of the proper treatment in order to avoid the more critical medical situations. The most common methods that are used for the detection of the disease are;
- Analysis of the defined signs and symptoms for the particular disease.
As the warthin’s tumor is benign is nature and considered to be highly unlikely to grow malignant in the patients. So, the best option for the treatment is surgery and the other options such as; radiation therapy and/or chemotherapy are likely to be less adopted by the professionals. Other than the surgery, patients having warthin’s tumor in a comparative good condition are recommended for the long term outlook. After the provision of proper treatment the chances of recurrence of the tumor are believed to be 2% or even less.