The basilar artery is an important part of the posterior circulation because it supplies blood to the pons and cerebellum, both of which are located in the posterior cranial fossa.
Prompt care is essential in the event of a stroke because it is a medical emergency. Brain injury and other consequences are minimized by prompt intervention. A stroke originating in the basilar artery is a posterior stroke, which affects brain blood flow at the back of the head. This type of stroke manifests in a variety of ways since the basilar artery delivers blood to the occipital lobes, cerebellum, and brainstem, all of which serve distinct functions.
Basilar artery occlusions, often known as BAOs, are a subtype of stroke that affects the posterior circulation. BAOs provide unique challenges due to their non-uniform presentation at first, which prolongs diagnosis, increases the likelihood of complications and death, and makes it difficult to determine the optimal course of treatment.
Basilary Artery Stroke Symptoms
When blood arteries leading to the brain become obstructed or damaged, a stroke occurs. Less than five percent of all ischemic strokes occur in this basilar artery.
An interruption in blood flow through the basilar artery is an example of a posterior stroke.
Regardless of the kind, a stroke mostly shows the following symptoms:
- Dizziness, instability, or trouble walking.
- Visual distortion or blindness.
- Coordination loss.
- Swallowing difficulty.
- Breathing difficulties.
- Difficulty comprehending or speaking.
- Loss of memory.
Many of these symptoms can be associated with other posterior strokes and basilar artery strokes, but the most common include a loss of balance, slurred speech, headache, vertigo, nausea, and vomiting.
Basilary Artery Stroke Prognosis
When compared to the general population, a stroke patient’s life expectancy is reduced by an average of 5.5 years. Stroke patients spend time recuperating and rehabilitating in the hospital. Many people require ongoing speech, occupational, and physical treatment as well as aid for their disabilities. Stroke survivors are vulnerable to another stroke. Approximately one-quarter of stroke survivors mostly experience a second stroke within five years.
The likelihood of surviving a stroke is increased by having access to specific medicines like tissue plasminogen activators. Treatment of the underlying causes of the stroke, such as high blood pressure, excessive cholesterol and diabetes.
Basilary Artery Stroke Survival Rate
Patients who receive prompt therapy often recover almost completely. Nevertheless, in cases with basilar artery occlusion, the period between the onset of symptoms and the diagnosis in the emergency room is frequently substantially longer than normal.
The ability to speak, think, move, and sense things gradually improve with the correct amount of rehabilitation. Even though only 10% of stroke survivors fully recover, 25% experience only slight impairments, and 40% experience moderate impairments that are mostly controlled with some extra care. The survival rate of the patients is affected by:
- Stroke’s severity.
- Patient’s age.
- The overall health of the patient.
Strokes mostly result in physical, psychological, and behavioral difficulties. Survivors of strokes continue to experience physical and mental health problems. The following are typical impairments that still exist:
- Cognitive difficulties; problems with awareness, memory, reasoning, attention, learning, and judgment.
- Trouble understanding speech and having trouble speaking.
- Depression and emotional difficulties.
- Strange feelings and tingling or numbness in the limbs.
Basilary Artery Stroke Treatment
A stroke caused by the basilar artery is treated similarly to other ischemic strokes. The aim is to eradicate the obstruction from the artery. Tissue plasminogen activator is mostly administered intravenously (IV) as part of the treatment (tPA).
The healthcare professional also recommends thrombectomy, a surgical operation involving the insertion of a catheter into the blocked artery and the manual removal of the clot. This therapy is most effective when done within six hours of the onset of stroke symptoms, but it is still helpful if done within 24 hours.
Certain risk variables, including age, gender, inheritance, and ethnicity, are uncontrollable, although other circumstances are. Taking measures to modify the lifestyle often helps to reduce the risk.
Common methods for reducing the risk of stroke include
- Giving up smoking
- Weight reduction.
- Limiting alcohol consumption.
Anti-clotting medication is also recommended by the doctor. Additionally, the doctors also suggest blood pressure medications or statins for reducing cholesterol.