Ber-EP4 is a technique that is used to distinguish between different kinds of cancer. It is found in all epithelial cells both on the surface and in the cytoplasm but not on the hepatocytes, parietal cells, and superficial layers of squamous epithelial cells. It reacts with simple epithelia, epidermis, and stratified non-keratinized squamous epithelium. However, it is unable to label mesothelial cells or distinguish between adenocarcinomas and pleural necrosis.
Ber-EP4 is also considered an Epithelial cell adhesion molecule antibody. It is used to diagnose various types of cancer cells such as lung, skin, and ovarian carcinoma cells. This antibody is beneficial for the differentiation of the following cancerous cells:
- Undifferentiated cancer and non-epithelial tumors
- Mesothelial cells and carcinoma cells.
- Reactive mesothelial cells and ovarian cancer cells.
Ber-EP4 Lung Cancer
Lung cancer affects the lung and the healthy cells of the lung. The lungs are made up of two air sacs that help in breathing. The majority of individuals throughout the world die from lung cancer. Uncontrolled cell growth causes cancer. Lung cancers frequently begin in the cells that border the bronchi and other regions of the lungs. This disease is divided into two subtypes such as small cell lung cancer, and non-small cell lung carcinoma.
Lung cancer is caused by the uncontrollable division of lung cells, which results in the growth of tumors. People who have tumors find it more difficult to breathe. In the United States, lung cancer ranks as the third most frequent type of disease overall and is the leading cause of death due to the disease.
Immunohistochemistry is increasingly utilized to assist in the detection of small-cell lung cancer. Different researches address the immunohistochemical staining of small cell lung cancer using a limited number of antibodies, but very few studies looked at large series using a comprehensive antibody panel.
In both transbronchial biopsy and open-lung biopsy specimens, epithelial markers keratin, BER-EP4, and epithelial membrane antigen are valid for Small cell lung cancer diagnosis. Negative neuroendocrine marker staining, which can occur in 25% of patients, does not discourage this diagnosis.
Ber-EP4 Skin Cancer
Most of the skin cancers, which is an abnormal growth of skin cells, happen on the skin that is exposed to the sun. Mutations in skin cell DNA cause skin carcinoma. Thus, due to mutations cancer cells proliferate uncontrollably.
Ber-EP4 is a histological marker that is mostly used to diagnose basal cell cancer. It is an anti-epithelial cell adhesion molecule antibody. Epithelial cell adhesion molecule is characterized as a transmembrane glycoprotein in epithelia. It also participates in cell signaling, motility, proliferation, and differentiation.
Since the Epithelial cell adhesion molecule is only found in epithelial and neoplasms that come from epithelia, it is used to diagnose different types of cancer. It appears to play a role in carcinoma carcinogenesis and metastasis, therefore it is used as a prognostic marker or a target for immunotherapeutic methods.
Ber-Ep4 is very sensitive and specific, indicating that it is solely positive in Basal cell carcinoma cells. The squamous epithelium and the mesothelium generally have Ber-Ep4 which is negative, whereas the majority of the epithelial cells throughout the body normally have Ber-Ep4 which is positive. It also assists in the identification of lung adenocarcinoma from mesothelioma. Thus, different kinds of skin cancers are distinguished from each other through the Ber-EP4 marker.
Ber-EP4 Ovarian Cancer
Ovarian carcinoma refers to the malignant growth of cells. The cells are capable of penetrating and damaging healthy body tissue and they also proliferate quickly. Each ovary of the female is about the size of an almond, and it produces eggs as well as the hormones estrogen and progesterone. The three most common kinds of this cancer are germ cell tumors, stromal tumors, and epithelial ovarian cancers.
In cytologic specimens, distinguishing reactive mesothelial cells from ovarian cancer cells is frequently challenging. Immunocytochemical methods are used to aid in the differential diagnosis of this condition, although they have limits. Ber-EP4, a monoclonal antibody to the epithelial epitope, and a polyclonal antibody to calretinin, which is expressed in the mesothelium, are employed in tissue specimens to distinguish between responsive mesothelial cells and ovarian cancerous cells.
Finally, combining Ber-EP4 immunostaining with anti-calretinin antibody immunostaining of all clear cancer cell specimens aids in the differentiation of mesothelial cells from not only serous, but also mucinous, endometrioid, and clear cell types of ovarian carcinoma cells.