Masson’s tumor is also known as papillary endothelial hyperplasia. The lesions are formed in deep skin layers and subcutaneous tissue. Mason’s tumor is benign, which means it’s non-cancerous in most cases. The endothelial cells are proliferated uncontrolled with papillary formations.
Although the clinical picture of Masson’s tumor is not crystal clear, several clinical tests confirm its diagnosis. Histological examination is a necessary step in prognosis. Often the diagnosis of mason’s tumor is dependent on this exam. The problem is that the benign vascular lesions and angiosarcoma have the same sign and symptoms., which makes the diagnosis difficult.
Mason described this tumor for the first time in 1923. This tumor doesn’t develop in the oral region. The lumen of dilated veins, hemangiomas, and hematomas are the most common locations where this tumor is found. Although it is not malignant, it is still recommended to treat it as early as possible. This will help to rescue the complications in later life.
Masson’s Tumor Location
The benign vascular lesion is most commonly found in subcutaneous tissue and skin. Most commonly, the trunk, fingers, and neck are the main regions where the mason’s tumor develops. There are around 32 cases in which a tumor is spotted in an intracranial location.
The classification of Masson’s tumor is as follows:
Primary: In this type, the tumor originates within a blood vessel. According to the studies, it is a vein.
Secondary: Preexisting vascular malformation is common in this phase of the tumor. It is seen to originate from a hemangioma or granuloma.
Extravascular: In this form, the mason’s tumor arises in a hematoma.
It is possible that mason’s tumor can occur in any part of the body and is not restricted to specific parts. Both genders regardless of age can be affected by this benign tumor.
Mason’s Tumor Recurrence
There is a possibility of recurrence with Masson’s tumor. After treatment, the tumor may reappear at the same site or in a different location. Surgical options can reduce the chances of recurrence. To confirm the cause and type of the tumor, numerous clinical tests should be performed.
The prediction of recurrence is daunting and the treatment is not easy if the tumor has a rapid growth or it is malignant. Mostly there is a typical pattern of recurrence. The tumors can be local, regional, or distant. Chances of recurrence are high if during surgery the tiny cluster of cancer cells can’t be removed or detected. This can lead to the quick spread of cancer in other parts.
Another factor is that the tumor is resistant to medication or treatment. In this case, the tumor can grow back in the same or different location. Each patient case is different and should be treated accordingly.
Mason’s Tumor Symptoms
The tumor develops in the deep dermis or subcutaneous tissue. It is painless, benign, and firm. It is often described as reddish or purple, found under the skin. Multi-lobulated and tender tumors can also result in few patients, although the growth of the tumor is slow.
The symptoms of Masson’s tumor can be acute or chronic. If there is an ocular involvement then the most common symptoms observed are as follows:
- Orbital pain
- Eyelid swelling
- Optic disk edema
- Decreased visual acuity
- Restricted extraocular muscle movement
- Nerve compression
- Conjunctival injection
There are rare chances of the development of Masson’s tumor in the ocular region. Other symptoms of the tumor include constant headaches, nausea, vomiting, abductions, nerve palsy, open sores that can be painful and bleed. Rashes, nodules, or irregular patches are also commonly seen.
Masson’s Tumor Causes
Masson’s tumor cause is still unknown. There are several studies published that show when the normal cells excessively divide and grow it leads to a tumor. Normally, our body is responsible to balance the division and growth of the body cells.
The normal mechanism of the body is that old and damaged cells are replaced with healthy cells. But in the case of the tumor, the dead cells don’t go anywhere and can form a growth which is termed a tumor. Heredity is also another main factor to consider as a cause of Masson’s tumor. The tumor can run in families. It is not important or evident that the location of the tumor will be the same.
Masson’s Tumor Treatment
The diagnostic procedures of Masson’s tumor include biopsy, cytology, MRI, and CT scan. The treatment plan is tailored for each patient separately. It depends on the severity of the tumor and to some extent the location as well.
Complete surgical excision is the preferred treatment for Masson’s tumor. If there were complications in surgery or it was incomplete, then chemotherapy and gamma-knife radiosurgery should be considered as the best treatment options.
If the treatment is delayed, there is a possibility of several complications which will diminish the quality of life and will be hard to treat the condition. Early diagnosis of tumors can help prevent irreversible deficits.