What is Neisseria Subflava?
The genus Neisseria possesses numerous species that live in mammals, reptiles, and various environments. Members of this genus are typically Gram-negative diplococci. There are a few Neisseria species, including N. Weaveri, N. elongata, and N. Bacilliformis, that do not follow the typical diplococcus appearance and instead exist as chains of bacilli or filaments. The genus Neisseria is also known for its lack of motility, flagella, aerobic sugar fermentation, and oxidase production.
Neisseria Subflava belongs to the family of Neisseria known as commensal Neisseria and is a component of the typical oral flora. Meningitis, bacteremia, ocular infections, empyema, endocarditis, osteomyelitis, septic arthritis, bursitis, pericarditis, and peritonitis are just a few of the chronic illnesses that can be brought on by commensal Neisseria.
Neisseria Subflava Characteristics
The following characteristics are present in Neisseria spp.
- Gram-negative, non-spore-forming diplococcus.
- These cocci typically appear in pairs and have flattened neighboring sides, which gives them the appearance of kidney beans.
- They are a type of non-motile aerobe, and some of them can either be microaerophilic or facultative anaerobes.
- They are not halophilic and can grow at temperatures up to about 37 degrees Celsius in some cases.
- For growth, they require increased carbon dioxide pressure as well as blood or ascitic fluid.
- They are fragile and unable to withstand adverse conditions; they perish at 55°C in 5 minutes.
Neisseria Subflava Gram Stain
It is a Gram-negative bacterium, which means it does not maintain the crystal violet stain during the Gram-staining method.
Gram staining is commonly employed in microbiology to categorize bacteria into Gram-positive and Gram-negative categories. This distinction is based on structural variations in the bacterial cell wall. Crystal violet staining causes Gram-positive bacteria to look purple under the microscope, while Gram-negative bacteria, which do not retain the stain, turn pink or red after being counterstained.
Neisseria Subflava Habitat
N.subflava is a gram-negative diplococcus present in the typical respiratory and genitourinary tract flora. Immunocompromised patients and IV drug users are more vulnerable to life-threatening infections.
Neisseria Subflava Shape
The Neisseria genus includes Gram-negative cocci that range in size from 0.6 to 1.0 m. The organisms are typically encountered in pairs, with the sides that are adjacent to one another flattened. Pili are filamentous appendages that have the appearance of hair and extend several micrometers from the surface of the cell.
Neisseria Subflava Susceptibility
Disk diffusion testing, often known as the Kirby-Bauer method, is the gold standard for determining bacterial susceptibility to antimicrobial drugs. Paper disks impregnated with specific antibiotics are deposited on a Neisseria subflava culture in this technique.
Antibiotics are chosen for testing based on several criteria, including the antibiotic’s clinical importance and the susceptibility patterns of common Neisseria species. In general, the following antibiotics are tested frequently for Neisseria species:
Beta-lactam antibiotics: Penicillin, ampicillin, amoxicillin, and cephalosporins like ceftriaxone are a few examples. Neisseria subflava is usually susceptible to these medicines.
Fluoroquinolones: Ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin are two examples. These antibiotics typically have a favorable effect on Neisseria subflava.
Macrolides: Erythromycin and azithromycin are two examples. Neisseria subflava is usually sensitive to macrolides.
Tetracyclines: Doxycycline and tetracycline are two examples. Neisseria subflava is usually susceptible to tetracyclines.
Aminoglycosides: Gentamicin and streptomycin are two examples. The sensitivity of Neisseria subflava to aminoglycosides can vary.