A rare condition known as symmetrical lupoid onychodystrophy, also known as symmetric lupoid onychitis, is thought to be immune-mediated. Canine symmetrical onychomadesis is another name for Symmetrical lupoid onychodystrophy. Lupus in dogs is a distinct form of the disease that cannot be spread to people or other animals. In some situations, appropriate supplementation eliminates symptoms with few relapses.
In other instances, the condition gets chronic and ongoing care is required. Even though it is a challenge to manage this condition, the dog can still function normally despite the issue. It is recommended to get the dog assessed by a veterinarian if he continually licks his feet or if his nails grow strangely. It is indeed possible the symptoms are not something to worry about, but they could point to a more serious issue.
Lupoid onychodystrophy affects primarily German shepherds and Gordan setters. The disease usually manifests itself between the ages of 2 to 6 years. Although veterinary specialists are unsure of the actual etiology, the illness appears to be immuno-mediated, which means that an overactive immune system is what sets it off.
Symmetrical Lupoid Onychodystrophy Symptoms
When a dog exhibits any of the clinical symptoms, such as onychalgia (pain), onycholysis (nail splitting), or onychomadesis, symmetric lupoid onychodystrophy/onychitis (SLO) should be taken into consideration. Lupoid onychodystrophy is characterized by gradual nail loss over weeks or months. Lupoid onycholysis and paronychia also cause discomfort. A cell-rich interface dermatitis is mostly observed in histology. Additional symptoms include:
- Foot licking
- Inflammation of the nail fold.
- Inflammation near the nail’s base.
- Nail peeling.
- Nail coming away from the flesh.
- Bleeding from the damaged digits.
Symmetrical Lupoid Onychodystrophy Causes
The exact causes are still a mystery. Genetic coronary artery disease (CAD), feed intolerances (especially in puppies), and trauma are also candidates for primary causes. Therefore, SLO must be considered idiopathic in the majority of individuals.
The most prevalent inflammatory condition that results in abnormal nails in dogs is symmetrical lupoid onychodystrophy (SLO). It is uncertain what causes this illness, however, it is thought to be genetic or immune-mediated. Symmetrical Lupoid Onychodystrophy often involves several nails on each of the four paws.
The dog does not develop a systemic sickness as a result of Symmetrical Lupoid Onychodystrophy. It is a type of lupus that impacts the cells that surround and originate from the nails. The illness is not usually related to eating habits or nutritional deficiencies. This immune-mediated disease is not transmissible to humans or other animals. According to scientists, a dog’s parents may carry the lupoid onychodystrophy gene. Only the toenails are mostly impacted by lupoid onychodystrophy.
Symmetrical Lupoid Onychodystrophy Treatment
Cytology is a typical initial diagnostic procedure used by veterinarians to check for infections. Infections caused by bacteria or yeast are treated initially if they are found. Biopsies are carried out if symptoms are persistent since histopathology is needed to validate a medical assessment of SLO.
Treatment is typically quite safe, but because a dog’s claw grows slowly, it can take several months to see a response to therapy. The duration of care is likely to be indefinite. The dog will experience a relapse if treatment is stopped. One choice is tetracycline or doxycycline plus niacinamide. Biotin pills are recommended to make nails stronger.
Pentoxifylline is mostly utilized in an auxiliary capacity, with varying degrees of success. Glucocorticoids, azathioprine, cyclosporine, and onychectomy are extreme treatments that are rarely recommended. Paw hygiene and diligent claw care are advised.
Once a successful therapy is determined, the prognosis for nail development is favorable, although some regrown toenails are still malformed. If the treatment is effective, the dog will not have any further nail loss or severe effects that accompany it. The dog may require treatment for the rest of its life.