Both Wilms tumor and Neuroblastoma occur in early childhood present typically as large-sized abdominal masses closely associated with the kidneys. The two anomalies are different from each other; however, some features aid in distinguishing between the two.
In neuroblastoma, calcification is up to 90%. The large masses encase the vascular structures but are not responsible for their invasion. The condition occurs in children less than two years old. It is related to the elevation of the aorta from the vertebral column. Extension into the spinal canal and retroperitoneal lymph nodes are observed. Neuroblastoma is more common to extend into the chest; bone metastases are more common.
On the contrary, in Wilms tumor calcification is only 10-15% common. The tumor is present in the age group of 3 to 4 years. This tumor displaces adjacent structures with the displacement of renal vessels and without insinuation. Bone metastases are rare but not lung metastasis.
Wilms tumor vs Neuroblastoma Symptoms
The Wilms tumor symptoms include abdominal swelling or mass, abdominal pain. However, some other signs and symptoms of this tumor include blood in the urine, fever, vomiting or nausea or both, constipation, increased blood pressure, shortness of breath, and loss of appetite.
When it comes to neuroblastoma, it can occur anywhere in the body. The signs and symptoms of the condition involve a lump or swelling in the child’s belly, weight loss, not eating or feeling full, difficulty in swallowing or breathing, swelling in the face, neck, upper chest, or legs, pain in bones, problems with urination and bowel movements and bruising or bulging around the eyes. The affected individuals may also show the appearance of blue bumps or lumps under the skin and problems with the inability of the body or parts of the body to move freely. It also involves a drooping eyelid and a small pupil in either of the eyes.
Wilms tumor vs Neuroblastoma Causes
Heredity is the main factor in the Wilms tumor. As a result of errors in the DNA, the growth of cancer cells uncontrollably eventually results in tumors. The process occurs in the kidney cells in Wilms tumor. However, in rare cases, the mutations in the DNA are passed from parent to offspring. But in most cases, there is no association between parents and children leading to cancer.
In neuroblastoma, the immature nerve tissues develop out of control. The cells tend to become abnormal and keep on growing and dividing. Genetic mutation is what causes the growth and division of the cells uncontrollably. Regarding the genetic mutation, healthcare providers are not sure. However, children with a family history of neuroblastoma are more susceptible to developing this kind of cancer. Around 98% to 99% of the time, it is not inherited. Children with other congenital anomalies are usually at a higher risk of developing neuroblastoma.
Wilms tumor vs Neuroblastoma Radiology
The radiographic features of the Wilms tumor include large heterogeneous solid masses displacing adjacent structures. They are most of the time cystic. Metastases to the lung (85%), liver, and local lymph nodes are common. It is similar to the renal cell carcinoma tumor thrombus into the renal vein as the right atrium and IVC is also characteristic of this advanced disease.
Neuroblastoma is non-specific with an intra-abdominal mass or an intrathoracic soft-tissue mass. Sclerotic metastases are not common; skeletal metastases are lucent accompanied by metaphyseal lucency or periosteal reaction. Ultrasonic features of the condition demonstrate a heterogeneous mass with internal vascularity. There are sometimes also areas of necrosis appearing as regions with low echogenicity.
ON a CT scan, the type of tumor is heterogeneous, and; calcifications are visible in 80-90% of cases. Necrosis-affected areas are of low attenuation. The MRI enables assessing the origin organ, intraspinal or intracranial diseases, and bone marrow disease 2.
Wilms tumor vs Neuroblastoma Treatment
The treatment of Wilms tumor involves surgery, chemotherapy, and sometimes radiation therapy. The treatment methods may vary depending upon the stage of the tumor. Because of the rarity, the doctors usually recommend seeking treatment at any children’s center with prior experience of treating and managing this tumor. The treatment of the condition begins with surgery to eradicate parts of the kidney (nephrectomy). Nephrectomy involves the removal of the affected part of the kidney and the affected kidney and the surrounding tissue.
Chemotherapy and radiation therapy also treat the Wilms tumor. Treatment for Wilms tumor involves a combination of drugs, given intravenously that work together to kill the cancerous cells. Radiation therapy is based upon the stage of cancer and utilizes a high-energy beam to kill and eradicate the cancerous cells.
Neuroblastoma is treated employing chemotherapy, radiation therapy, surgery, and retinoid therapy. The condition is treated by immunotherapy, stem cell, or high-dose chemotherapy.