What are Cameron lesions? – Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

What are Cameron lesions - Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

What are Cameron Lesions?

Cameron lesions are longitudinal ulcerations or erosions in the stomach mucosal folds caused by pressure from a big hiatal hernia through the thoracic diaphragm. Cameron lesions are associated with a hiatal hernia, a disease characterized by the protrusion of the stomach into the esophageal opening. Cameron lesions are a type of hiatal hernia consequence. If the hiatal hernia is small, the patient may not experience any symptoms; however, a larger hiatal hernia causes symptoms, and if this medical condition is left unattended, it can pose a severe threat to the patient’s life.

Cameron lesions were initially characterized as ‘linear gastric erosions’ by Dr. Alan Cameron of the Mayo Clinic in 1986. They are present in the proximal stomach, near the diaphragmatic pinch, at the end of a big hiatal hernia. Cameron lesions are defined as ulcers or erosions that occur in or around the diaphragmatic hiatus, and according to Weston, who was among the first to investigate the endoscopic characteristics of the Cameron lesions, it is difficult to tell the difference between ulcers and erosions based on endoscopic appearance utilizing depth as a criterion.

What are Cameron lesions - Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Cameron Lesions Symptoms

Cameron lesions do not have unique symptoms, but they do overlap with hiatal hernia symptoms. Cameron lesions frequently manifest themselves with the following symptoms:

  • Burning and chest pain are the most typical signs of Cameron lesions and hiatal hernias, respectively.
  • Both hiatal hernias and Cameron lesions are associated with the symptoms of nausea and belching. Patients may also have trouble swallowing and breathing due to stomach bloating and inflammation at the esophageal opening.
  • Cameron lesions can increase anemia and worsen hiatal hernia symptoms. In addition to this, Cameron tumors can cause internal bleeding in the stomach, which can cause iron deficiency anemia. Cameron lesions can become seriously problematic for the patient if they are not addressed promptly.

Cameron Lesions Causes

Cameron lesions are clinically significant changes to the stomach mucosa that can lead to symptoms such as occult bleeding, and even life-threatening GI hemorrhage. As linear erosions on the mucosal fold crests, these lesions typically manifest themselves in individuals with hiatal hernias during gastroscopy and are located near or around the diaphragm. 

The proximal stomach affected by the hernia, which compresses when the hernia slides against the diaphragm and results in ischemia, is thought to be the primary source of Cameron lesions. Cameron lesions may also result from ischemia, which restricts blood flow to the gastric folds, or irritation from mechanical damage brought on by the herniated stomach moving around during respiration.

Oftentimes, erosions are missed during endoscopy, resulting in repetitive and unnecessary diagnostic procedures for this disease, especially in patients with chronic anemia.

Cameron Lesions Treatment

Medical care, surgical intervention, and endoscopic procedures are all viable choices. Medical treatment includes PPI acid suppression to speed mucosal recovery and iron therapy for anemia. The vast majority of patients suffer from acid-related conditions such as esophagitis and reflux disease, and as a result, they are typically prescribed acid inhibitors. This combined therapy produced positive outcomes, with a considerable improvement in ulcer healing and hemoglobin correction. 

 Endoscopic hemostasis can be challenging in situations like these due to the technical and anatomical challenges involved. In some cases, cauterization and Epinephrine injections benefited for a short time.

Fundoplication is one possible surgical procedure. It is advised in individuals who have excessive bleeding from these lesions, medically resistant illness, or a complex hernia with incarceration, volvulus, or perforations. Fundoplication is viewed as a suitable treatment due to the close relationship between Cameron lesions and hiatal hernias.

The following are some natural treatments for this illness:

  • A proper dietary schedule.
  • Honey with cold milk.
  • Chilled milk with turmeric.

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