Coagulative Necrosis in Kidney, Liver, Brain, Characteristics

“Coagulative necrosis is characterized by the cell death due to ischemia or infarction resulting in the formation of a firm pale patch or infarct comprised of dead cells.”

It typically involves accidental cell death which is not caused by reasons such as trauma, immune system suppression or toxicities. It involves only one reason which is the poor or no blood supply at all to the tissues of a localized area. This interruption may result from any kind of blockage in the blood vessels of this specified area leading to the compromised supply of oxygen and other rated nutrients.

Due to this deficiency, cells may die but their structure remains preserved for a few days allowing the surrounding cells to help in the regeneration of these dead cells. But it can only happen when the structural entities are preserved well in a coagulated from and the activation of lysosomal enzymes has not been started. As the lysosomal enzymes cause the proteolysis of the injured cells turning these into a dead mass which can never be regenerated by any means.

Despite this reason, raised the temperature in any localized area (due to high-intensity ultrasound radiation) can serve as a cause ofcoagulated necrosis.

Coagulative Necrosis in Kidney, Liver, Brain, Characteristics

Coagulative Necrosis Characteristics

Coagulative necrotic tissues in any organ can be differentiated from the normal tissues of that organ-based on some characteristics divided into two following types;

Macroscopic Features:

  • When coagulative necrosis happens in the tissues of any organ then it turns these tissues into pale color dead bodies with the highly damaged blood vessels. This necrotic area can be distinguished from the surrounding alive tissue cells with a well-defined vascular system.
  • Necrosis turns this area into a firm patch of dead cells with sharp and dried out edges giving this patch a wedge-like shape.
  • Later on, the inflammatory response in this area may lead to the color change of this patch from pale to red.
  • Regeneration in this patch can happen with the help of surrounding alive tissues only in the case when these damaged tissues in the necrotic area are not firm and enduring.

Microscopic features:

  • The internal structure of the cell appears completely lost including the nucleus.
  • Sharp dead edges of the infarct appear as boundaries to the patch separating it from the surrounding fresh tissues.
  • Under the application of the H&E stain, these necrotic tissues may show cytoplasmic hyper-eosinophilia.

Coagulative Necrosis in Kidney

In the urinary system of the human body, kidneys play a vital role. For their proper functioning, adequate and uninterrupted blood supply to each of their cells is mandatory. Somehow, due to any interruption or blockage in the blood supply may lead to the reduced supply of oxygen and nutrients to the cells resulting in the death of the affected cells. These necrotic cells accumulate in the organ and can be distinguished based on their differential characteristics. As in kidney, the injured or damaged cells appear pale and in this area damaged blood vessels can also be seen with the leaking fluids out of these vessels. This damage leads to necrosis in this area resulting in the formation of a firm infarct that can be differentiated from the healthy cells.

Coagulative Necrosis in Liver

The liver is a vital organ of the human body which needs a continuous and adequate blood supply to its every cell to function in a normal and better way.

Due to any underlying cause such as poor dietary habits, ultimately leading to the accumulation of cholesterol or a plaque in the blood vessels can cause the blockage of the flow of blood. This interruption may lead to reduced or even no blood supply to the vital organs of the body including the liver. Due to this blockage, cells fail to get the expected nutrients and oxygen to remain alive and function properly which ultimately leads to cell necrosis.

Due to the accumulation of necrotic cells in the liver, and infarct can be seen in the specific affected area.

Coagulative Necrosis in Brain

The most common type of necrosis is known to be the coagulative necrosis which follows the ischemia and it can occur in all kinds of tissues of the human body except the central nervous system. CNS is considered vulnerable to liquefactive necrosis which causes the degradation of the neural cells followed by severe bacterial infections.

In this case, the digestion of neural cells occurs through different processes involving enhanced activation of hydrolases leading the autolysis that cause the liquefaction of the dead cells into an infectious soft mass (cerebral infarction and abscess).

Coagulative Necrosis vs. Liquefactive Necrosis

 

Coagulative Necrosis Liquefactive Necrosis
Definition “It is a type of necrosis which occurs due to the ischemia resulting in the formation of infarct characterized by a firm patch of dead tissues following the denaturation of the proteins including enzymes.” “It is a type of necrosis in which the dead cells undergo digestion (autolysis, hydrolases) resulting in the formation of liquid mass in the specified area.”
Location Heart, Kidney, Adrenal glands, etc. (except CNS) The central nervous system (CNS)
Gross features The affected area appears pale, swollen and firm. The affected area appears soft and liquid
Microscopic features Cells lose their true features and only left with the outlines.Sloid infarcts can be seen. Leakage of shapeless proteinaceous mass into a cystic space can be seen after the enzyme digestion process.

 

 

 

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