Learn all about neoplasia and its types. There is no single mechanism by which a neoplasm arises. Many different mechanisms give rise to neoplasms, and that is what makes diagnosis and treatment so challenging.
Neoplasia is new growth. The terms benign and malignant correlate to the course of the neoplasm. Benign neoplasms stay localized in one place; malignant neoplasms invade surrounding tissue and, in most cases, can metastasize to distant organs. To become neoplastic, a normal cell must develop mutations that allow it to no longer obey boundaries of adjacent cells, thus allowing for uncontrolled growth, and the neoplasm must be able to produce its own blood supply.
Multiple endocrine neoplasias; (MEN) are a group of disorders that affect the endocrine system, which is made up of glands that produce, store, and release hormones into the bloodstream. The disease typically involves tumors (overgrowth of tissue) in multiple endocrine glands that may be cancerous or noncancerous (benign) and may cause the glands to become overactive and overproduce).
Neoplastic disease in the form of a carcinoma will manifest symptoms that include open sores that are slow to heal. These sores continually bleed, ooze or crust over. A person with carcinoma will experience reddish patches of irritated skin in the arms, legs, chest and shoulders that may often itch or hurt. A carcinoma growth with an indented center and an elevated border may develop, with tiny blood vessels appearing on the surface as it slowly grows larger. Shiny bumps that are white, pink, or red appear, often take on the appearance of a mole.
There are many factors that determine the treatment method used for neoplastic diseases. A patient’s age will play a great part in what type of treatment the doctor decides to use. The doctor will also take into consideration the patient’s general health, the type of neoplastic disease the patient has, the extent of a patient’s weight loss, and the body parts affected, among other factors. Once the neoplasm has decreased considerably after radiation therapy or chemotherapy, surgical removal of the remaining cancer cells may be undertaken. Most neoplasms require a combination of radiation, chemotherapy, and surgery to remove as many cancerous cells as possible.
What is Neoplasia Definition?
‘Neo’ is a prefix meaning ‘new’ in words like neoplasia, which is the abnormal growth and proliferation of abnormal cells or abnormal amounts of cells due to a benign or malignant process. Neoplasia is new, uncontrolled growth of cells that is not under physiologic control. A “tumor” or “mass lesion” is simply a “growth” or “enlargement” which may not be neoplastic (such as a granuloma). The term “cancer” implies malignancy, but neoplasms can be sub classified as either benign or malignant.
Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia
Multiple endocrine neoplasias (MEN) type I is a disease in which one or more of the endocrine glands are overactive or form a tumor. It is passed down through families. Hormones are chemical messengers that travel through the bloodstream and regulate the function of cells and tissues throughout the body. Multiple endocrine neoplasias typically involve tumors (neoplasia) in at least two endocrine glands; tumors can also develop in other organs and tissues. These growths can be noncancerous (benign) or cancerous (malignant). If the tumors become cancerous, the condition can be life-threatening. The most common sign of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 is a form of thyroid cancer called medullary thyroid carcinoma.
Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia
Cervical dysplasia refers to abnormal changes in the cells on the surface of the cervix. The cervix is the lower part of the uterus (womb) that opens at the top of the vagina. Cervical dysplasia can develop at any age. CIN is divided into grades, which describe how far the abnormal cells have gone into the surface layer of the cervix. The cell changes can be classed as CIN1, 2 or 3. This classification is used to indicate how much of the cervix is affected by abnormal cells. The higher the number, the more of the cervix is affected and so treatment is given to remove the cells. CIN1 often goes back to normal without treatment but a repeat cervical screening test (smear) is needed to check that the cells have gone.
Vulvar Intraepithelial Neoplasia
Vulvar intraepithelial neoplasm (VIN) is a histologic diagnosis of a proliferative disorder of the external female genitalia. It also has been referred to as Bowen’s disease, erythroplasia of Queyrat, and carcinoma simplex.1, 2 The International Society for the Study of Vulvar Diseases (ISSVD) has established a standardized nomenclature that should be used preferentially. Severe VIN, termed VIN III, is synonymous with carcinoma in situ (CIS) and may be referred to by either term because both are used interchangeably in the literature. VIN is a benign neoplastic lesion often associated with vulvar cancer. It should be treated when symptomatic and, possibly, to prevent the development of a malignant lesion.
Conjunctival Intraepithelial Neoplasia
Conjunctival Intraepithelial Neoplasia is a proliferation of dysplasic squamous conjunctival epithelium, which can develop from a mild dysplasia to a devastating squamous cell carcinoma. If left undetected, it may result in intraocular invasion requiring enucleation. Presentation of CIN may closely resemble benign pterygia making differential diagnosis difficult.