Approximately 20% of cases are oligometastatic when the patients are diagnosed with prostate cancer. This type of cancer is still an area of interest for researchers. It was first discovered by Hellman in 1995. The metastasis is seen in patients with a history of cancer. Even if someone in their family had prostate disorders.
There is a variation in oligometastatic prostate cancer test results. It is dependent on the exact location and PSA test which is commonly known as a prostate-specific antigen. However, diagnosing oligometastatic prostate cancer can be a bit challenging. Even if the oncologist is looking at all the possible causes, it is a bit difficult to see the metastases with the standard procedure scans.
There are high chances that after the initial treatment patients will experience increased levels of PSA tests. Salvage radiotherapy is considered for the prostate as a treatment regime. The clinical implications and the treatment advances will be discussed. Keep reading!
Oligometastatic Prostate Cancer Stages
The urologist will examine the patient and determine the stage of prostate cancer. This will include the physical examination of the prostate and blood tests which help to detect cancer before the treatment. Oligometastatic prostate cancer stages are as follows.
- T1 tumors are usually discovered during the surgeries while treating other conditions like benign prostate hyperplasia. It has three sub-types:
- T1A is usually found during the surgical procedures
- T1B is detected during surgery of BPH
- T1C is commonly found with biopsy. It is performed when the PSA levels are high.
- T2 tumors are attached to the prostate. They are easily felt during the examination due to their size as compared to T1 tumors. Radiological tests may also show the tumor in the scans. It is further divided into:
- T2A is the invasion of half prostate, usually, it is one half
- T2B spreads to more than half of the prostate. But it will not affect both sides
- T2C tumor will affect all the prostate
- T3 can be described as the uncontrolled metastasis of the tumor. It may spread to seminal vesicles. Its further division is:
- T3A is only confined to the prostate
- T3B spreads in the surrounding areas
- T4 affects the surrounding tissues other than the vesicles. The rectum or bladder can be affected and the cancer is spread to the other organs.
Oligometastatic Prostate Cancer Prognosis
There are high chances of survival if prostate cancer is diagnosed at an early stage. The prognosis rate of oligometastatic prostate cancer is considered good as compared to other cancers. The recurrence rate is dependent on the condition of each patient individually.
The PSA levels hold prime importance in detecting prostate cancer. The recurrence of high PSA levels will be a sign that something is wrong with the prostate function. It is advised that patients who suffer from cancer or have prostate disorders should get evaluated with the help of PSA tests regularly.
The PSA levels should be zero after the surgery. The same thing goes for radiation therapy. Cancer will be considered recurrent if the PSA levels rise in these two conditions specifically.
Oligometastatic Prostate Cancer Survival Rate
The statistics show that the survival rate in the final stages of prostate cancer is around 5 years. The metastasis of cancer in other parts of the body will also define the rate of survival. Early screening measures can help to diagnose cancer at an early stage.
There are around 90% survival chances if the cancer is diagnosed early and the treatment plan is initiated. Oligometastatic prostate cancer has high chances of recurrence even if the patient has undergone surgery. The research shows that around 30% of patients will face recurrence.
The aggressiveness of cancer will be an important factor to take additional measures and scans to make sure cancer doesn’t return. If the patients are treated at early stages, they will be cancer-free after 5 years.
Oligometastatic Prostate Cancer Treatment
The treatment of oligometastatic prostate cancer will be dependent on the following factors:
- PET scan test results, which should be accurate
- Few metastases
These patients can be successfully treated with surgery. Another treatment can be cyberknife radiotherapy. The site of metastasis is important to consider when devising a treatment plan. Because in this case, radiotherapy can be effective. Hormone therapy is another alternative treatment option. But due to its multiple side effects, it is usually not preferred by the patients themselves.
Hormone treatment can be beneficial if the scans start showing an increased level of PSA. In that case, this treatment can be fruitful as it can help to reduce the high levels of PSA. This can prevent the recurrence rate as well.