Plasmacytoid Lymphocytes Meaning, Significance, Causes, Treatment

Plasmacytoid Lymphocytes Meaning, Significance, Causes, Treatment

Plasmacytoid Lymphocytes Meaning

Reactive lymphocytes are classified using a variety of terminology, including variant, reactive, atypical, effector, plasmacytoid, transformed, Turk cells, immunoblasts, and Downey.

Plasmacytoid lymphocytes are reactive lymphocytes that share certain morphological characteristics with plasma cells. The presence of a large number of these cells raises the possibility of lymphoma or Waldenstrom’s macroglobulinemia. Blood film examination rarely reveals the presence of true plasma cells.

The appearance of a plasmacytoid lymphocyte is comparable to that of a lymphocyte that is crossed with a plasma cell. Lymphocytes don’t do anything until they are told to respond to an infection. Under a microscope, they resemble cells that are primarily composed of the nucleus. These cells are also referred to as plasmacytoid lymphocytes, lymphocytoid plasma cells, and atypical lymphocytes. Atypical lymphocytes are nonneoplastic lymphocytes found in the peripheral blood that appear to be nonspecific responses to stress caused by several illnesses.

Plasmacytoid Lymphocytes Meaning, Significance, Causes, Treatment


The importance of plasmacytoid lymphocytes stems from their participation in the body’s defense against viral infections. Since plasmacytoid lymphocytes can make a lot of interferons, they are an important part of the immune system’s early response to viral infections. This generation of interferon serves to activate additional immune cells and establish an antiviral response, both of which can contribute to the body’s ability to free itself from infection.

Plasmacytoid lymphocytes are linked to a variety of autoimmune and inflammatory illnesses, in addition to their function in the body’s antiviral defense system. In certain illnesses, plasmacytoid lymphocytes can enhance the immunological response, resulting in inflammation and tissue destruction.

Overall, the importance of plasmacytoid lymphocytes rests in their capacity to aid in the body’s defense against viral infections as well as their potential function in autoimmune and inflammatory illnesses.


Possible diagnostic procedures for a plasmacytoid lymphocyte elevation include:

  • A complete blood count, often known as a CBC, is a test that can determine the amount of several white blood cell subtypes, including plasmacytoid lymphocytes, that are present in the blood.
  • It is sometimes necessary to extract a sample of bone marrow for microscopic analysis, and this can be done by a procedure called a bone marrow biopsy. This can detect the reason for plasmacytoid lymphocyte growth and any underlying problems.
  •  Additional laboratory tests are performed to assist in the diagnosis of an underlying disorder, such as an infection caused by a virus or an autoimmune disease. These tests can involve an autoimmune test, blood chemistry checks, or viral culture.


Plasmacytoid lymphocytes are a type of lymphocyte that exists between B lymphocytes and plasma cells. They are found in a variety of situations, such as dengue virus infection, hyperimmunization, rubella, serum sickness, monoclonal B lymphocytosis (pre-CLL), viral infections such as SARS-CoV-2, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, vaccination,  polyclonal B-lymphocytosis, whooping cough, and HIV infection. They can also be seen in individuals who have polyclonal B-lymphocytosis. Blood smears may also reveal atypical plasmacytoid lymphocytes because of neoplastic cells.


The treatment for plasmacytoid lymphocytes is determined by the underlying cause of the rise in the number of these cells. If the rise in plasmacytoid cells is caused by a viral infection, antiviral therapy is used to assist clear the infection.

Medications that decrease the immune response and decrease inflammation are sometimes used to treat autoimmune illnesses like rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).  

Depending on the specific type and progression of cancer, patients can often undergo radiation therapy,  immunotherapy, or chemotherapy.

It is not always required to treat a rise in plasmacytoid cells because the rise can simply be the immune system’s normal reaction to diverse stimuli.

Treatment for elevated plasmacytoid lymphocytes can vary widely depending on the source and severity of the condition, therefore it’s crucial to consult a medical professional for advice.

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