The combination of neuronal and glial tumors is known as a Glioneuronal tumor. This is a rare form of tumor. Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor and ganglioglioma are two variants commonly associated with glioneuronal tumors. 90% of the patients experience resistant seizures when they are suffering from glioneuronal tumors.
Children and young children are most commonly affected with glioneuronal tumors. The location of the tumor is the temporal lobe. The majority of patient cases have low-grade glioneuronal tumors. Surgical procedures are considered the best treatment to manage the symptoms and treat this kind of tumor.
The CT scan and MRI scan are the diagnostic tests used to diagnose glioneuronal tumors. The neuroimage appearance may vary in every patient case. The vascular malformation can be confused with glioneuronal tumors. Let’s find out more about this tumor and how it can be treated? Keep reading to know about it!
Glioneuronal Tumor Grades
The grading system of glioneuronal tumors was classified and interpreted by WHO in 2016. The clinical literature regarding glioneuronal tumors is limited. The following phases are considered to be part of the glioneuronal tumor.
Ganglion cells and neoplastic neuronal cells combine in ganglioglioma. It is a grade-1 tumor and it is found in around 0.4%-1.7% of patients. It is predominant in children and adults before the age of 30.
Anaplastic ganglioglioma is a grade III tumor. The rapid progressive rate of this tumor limits the treatment options of patients. The survival rate in this phase is minimum. The elevated mitotic activity makes it daunting to treat.
Dysembryoplastic Neuroepithelial Tumor
Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor is a mild grade 1 tumor. Drug-resistant seizures are common in this phase. This tumor affects the cerebral cortex of adults and children.
Glioneuronal Tumor Survival Rate
The survival rate of glioneuronal tumors depends on multiple factors of patients. There is a considerable decline in survival rate with the advancing age. There is a 36% chance of a 5-year survival rate. This means that a patient is likely to die after 5 years of diagnosis Whereas 31% of the people have chances of a 10-year survival rate.
If the people diagnosed with a tumor range between 15 to 39 years, the 5-year survival rate chances are quite high. But for people who are above the age of 40, the chances drop to 21%. The survival rate also depends on the location and the grade of the tumor. More advanced stage diagnoses will have a higher mortality rate.
We would say that it is still an estimated percentage. Exact numbers cannot be depicted. As glioneuronal tumor is related to the brain and is a rare condition, but still it is the leading cause of death in many people diagnosed with glioneuronal tumor.
Glioneuronal Tumor Causes
There is no known cause of glioneuronal tumors. So, unfortunately, as we are not aware of the exact cause, we cannot take preventative measures to minimize the risk. Some health conditions are associated with these tumors. The common examples are:
- Noonan Syndrome
- Neurofibromatosis 1
- Cowden’s syndrome
- Lhermitte-Duclos disease
Genetic tests can help to confirm and rule out these conditions. Specialist care is recommended for these kinds of patients. Genetics is also a predominant factor to consider while diagnosing glioneuronal tumors. Any patient with a family history of a brain tumor or cancer has a high chance to develop the tumor in the early or late stages of life. Exposure to excess radiation can be another leading cause of this tumor.
As discussed earlier, advancing age can be another vital factor of glioneuronal tumors. Although it can affect any age group, the chances are high in old age.
Glioneuronal Tumor Treatment
Neurosurgery is the first-line treatment considered in patients suffering from glioneuronal tumors. Complete resection of the tumor is recommended. The main reason is that it can help to cure and manage the symptoms effectively. The recurrence rate with surgical procedures is quite low.
In some cases, surgery cannot be an option. There is no specific cause but certain factors need to be considered when recommending neurosurgery to patients. In that case, chemotherapy and radiotherapy are the last resort for the patients.
Clinical researches are being carried out around the world to find the cure of glioneuronal tumor. A biopsy can be considered to diagnose a glioneuronal tumor. In a biopsy, a sample of the tumor is removed and analyzed in the laboratory. The arginine levels of the brain should be reduced to treat or manage these types of tumors.