Granulomatosis infantiseptica is an intrauterine infection that has a relatively low mortality rate for mothers but a significant mortality rate for fetuses or newborns. Even though the infection affects the entire fetus, it manifests primarily as widespread localized necrosis in the liver, spleen, and, less frequently, the lungs and intestines, with monocytic infiltration. Granulomatosis infantiseptica is a condition that can manifest itself in neonates anywhere from hours to days after delivery.
Granulomatosis infantiseptica is a skin condition that manifests as a granulomatous or inflammatory nodular rash and is brought on by a Listeria infection in an infant who has just been born. Listeria infection is caused by ingesting Listeria monocytogenes-contaminated food. Listeria can infect healthy young people with no symptoms, but it can cause catastrophic illness in pregnant women, the elderly, newborns, and others with compromised immune systems.
Listeria is a rod-shaped, gram-positive, anaerobe that does not make spores and moves when grown at low temperatures.
Granulomatosis Infantiseptica Symptoms
Granulomatosis infantiseptica is characterized by a distinctive nodular rash on the skin of newborns. Typically, the rash appears within seven days of birth. Nodules are also formed internally as a result of granulomatosis infantiseptica, particularly over the spleen and liver.
In addition to the rash, newborns could also have febrile gastroenteritis, which is a disorder that manifests itself with fever, lethargy, diarrhea, and vomiting.
Granulomatosis Infantiseptica Causes
Granulomatosis infantiseptica happens when a pregnant person gets Listeria monocytogenes. This generally occurs when the person eats food that is contaminated. Listeria is a pathogen that can survive in cold temperatures of refrigerators, unlike other foodborne infections. Soft cheese, hot dogs, dairy, deli meats, salads, fruits, and vegetables are frequently contaminated as a result. Pregnant women are cautioned against consuming certain foods, such as deli meats and soft cheeses, until after they have given birth.
The placenta, which is located inside the uterus and is responsible for the fetus’s growth, can act as a medium for the infection to travel from the pregnant woman to the developing baby. When a pregnant woman has Listeria, the infection is most often passed from mother to child through the placenta (70%-90% of the time).
Listeria infection often causes preterm labor (labor that starts before 37 weeks) or loss of the fetus, and the baby can get sepsis, meningitis, or granulomatosis infantiseptica. Granulomatosis infantiseptica causes tiny, light-colored nodules as the fetus’ immune system attempts to fight off the foreign invader.
Granulomatosis Infantiseptica Rash
This rash is indicated by the following features:
- Cellulitis complicated by the development of an abscess is described in fewer cases.
- Exposed parts, such as the hands and forearms, are frequently the site of eruptions.
- Many individuals develop systemic symptoms, the most prevalent of which is fever.
- Lymphangitis and adenopathy (the swelling of lymph nodes) in the region around the affected person are often reported.
- Most of the time, the rash is more widespread in babies.
- Infantile granulomatosis manifests as a generalized erythematous rash with tiny, whitish papules.
Granulomatosis Infantiseptica Treatment
Granulomatosis infantiseptica is often diagnosed following a comprehensive physical examination of the baby and a detailed assessment of maternal illnesses. Granulomatosis infantiseptica is treated using antibiotics like intravenous ampicillin. It is recommended that immunocompetent patients undergo treatment for bacteremia for a full two weeks.
In an immunocompromised patient, a long term of treatment is necessary. Three weeks of treatment is recommended for meningitis, four to six weeks for endocarditis, and at least six weeks for a brain tumor. Synergistic addition of gentamicin is common, but if clinical improvement has occurred for at least a week, the antibiotic can be safely stopped to prevent renal toxicity.
The greatest strategy to limit the danger of listeriosis is to educate oneself about which foods should be avoided as well as proper methods for preparing and storing food. Pregnant women, the elderly, and those with compromised immune systems are particularly at risk for developing invasive listeriosis, therefore they are required to pay close attention to this warning.