Oral Melanoacanthoma Symptoms, Causes, Treatment, Management

Oral Melanoacanthoma Symptoms, Causes, Treatment, Management

There are millions of dental and oral diseases of which we are not aware yet. In this article, we will be discussing the condition named Oral Melanoacanthoma, which is one of the rare dental diseases and scientists reported this disease in the last century. This disease is related to oral mucosa and is quite a rare condition.

The term Melanoacanthoma was first presented in 1960 by Mishima and Pinkus. This term describes a benign mixed tumor in the skin. It is a mixture of basal and prickle cell keratinocytes and pigmented dendritic melanocytes. Clinically, this oral disease develops very quickly in young black people especially females. This lesion has a flat or slightly raised brownish black pigmented surface which tends to affect mucosal sites.

Now we will be discussing all the relevant features and details regarding this dental disease. To get yourself notified, you are requested to continue reading this article further.

What is Oral Melanoacanthoma?

The oral disease entitled Oral Melanoacanthoma, most frequently found in black females, is an uncommon pigmented benign lesion. Physicians characterize this disease by the hyperplasia of spinous keratinocytes and pigmented dendritic melanocytes. The clinical behavior of this disease is indicative of a reactive and alarming origin. The most common sites of involvement with lesions located within the mouth include lip, buccal mucosa, palate, and gingiva. The size of Melanoacanthoma lies between 0.5 to 3 cm diameters. People suffering from this disease often describe a rapid increase in the size of lesions within a few weeks. This disease is not painful, but, sometimes, in rare cases, some symptoms can cause discomfort.

The average life period this disease remains present in a person is 28 years. This disease is mainly seen in black people with strong female predilection and is mostly seen in the third and fourth decades of life. To our best knowledge, approximately 50 cases have been reported till now.

Oral Melanoacanthoma Symptoms, Causes, Treatment, Management

Oral Melanoacanthoma Symptoms

Although any part of oral mucosa can be affected by this disease, buccal mucosa is the most commonly affected location. Clinically, its representation can be quite alarming. The most common symptom in this disease is typically an ill-defined and fast enlarging dark brown or black-pigmented area whose surface becomes flat to slightly raised. Within a few weeks, the size of this pigmented lesion starts to enlarge rapidly. This symptom makes it easy to detect Oral Melanoacanthoma. Besides this symptom, the other reported symptoms seen in some rare cases include pain in intraoral areas, burning, and pruritus. 

This disease, mainly found in black females at the age of around 35, is sometimes asymptomatic. According to some clinicians, the oral lesions in this disease are sometimes presented as an asymptomatic pigmented dark-brown or black macule along with a whole mucosal surface and clearly defined borders.

Oral Melanoacanthoma Causes

The common cause behind Oral Melanoacanthoma or pigmented mucosal sites is the daily use of chemical irritants as they are the reason behind stimulating melanocytes. Regular use of toothpaste and mouthwashes that contain petroleum derivatives may act as the agent in pigmenting mucosal sites. These petroleum derivatives include chemicals like nitrophenol, phenolphthalein, sodium lauryl sulfate, and a few more. Mouthwashes containing hydrogen peroxide can also cause oral Melanoacanthoma. 

Besides that, frequent use of tobacco and alcohol can also irritate oral mucosa and cause this disease. A combination of these two drugs is not only bad for your mouth but, your whole body, especially lungs, is badly affected by these drugs. The reaction of tobacco and alcohol can increase the risk of certain cancers including mouth cancer. The combination of these two drugs is more dangerous.

Oral Melanoacanthoma Treatment

There is no specific medical treatment for both cutaneous and mucosal lesions till now. There is a low risk that this disease may occur again in a patient and, this disease is not a life-threatening disease. Therefore, there is no specific treatment to treat such lesions. Treatment for patients having benign mucosal lesions can be limited to the removal of precipitating stimulus.

Surgical excision is the second option for the termination of both cutaneous and mucosal lesions. Laser treatment, cryosurgery, and electrosurgery are better for the termination of these lesions. Doctors should mention the usage of a specific laser on the biopsy order before surgery. However, the use of these surgical options is risky for microscopic diagnosis.

Oral Melanoacanthoma Management

Doctors carry out a regular check-up of a patient. It follows a biopsy procedure to observe the progress of the pigmented lesion.

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